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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

完成所有的事,甚至更多

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节目11 歌曲《我心永恒》,席琳-迪翁
2017年,我国购买了14.1万台工业机器人,同比增长58.1%,然而在购买的机器人中,外资品牌占比近3/4,这表明国产与国外机器人制造商存在的差距仍在扩大。

Japanese cities have seen a lowering of costs, despite being some of the most expensive cities over the past 20 years, Tokyo and Osaka have dropped to 11th and 14th place, respectively.
住房市场在去年年初表现抢眼,但到年末时则受到不断加重的担忧情绪困扰,这其中包括利率上升、供给制约、信贷收紧及一系列其他问题。
However, 2016 saw the rise of Chinese mobile phone-makers. Huawei shipments grew 30.2 percent year on year to 139.3 million units, and the company retained its No. 3 position globally.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

LED竞争格局加剧 海洋王等3家企业2015年净利走跌

There are several themes across the Worst Passwords list, including first names and hobbies.
失业率减幅在2015年的下降得可能不会那样的迅速,据经济学家所言,特别是如果更多的人进入劳动力市场由于更容易找到工作。尽管如此和2014年相似的大量招聘和录用将会使低的失业率数据显得更加的可信。
2. Get a Belstaff coat and blue scarf. The coat cost about 1350 pounds. It's got good twirl for those dramatic moments in life.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

根据北京市统计局发布的一份报告显示,2015年北京市社会消费品零售总额突破万亿元,达到了10338亿元,同比增长7.3%。
据高部长称,在“十三五”计划期间,中国在与“一带一路”的国家形成优势互补的跨国产业链、价值链的同时,还将持续大力改善投资环境,充分挖掘市场潜力。
萎靡不振的不光是那些挑选个股的基金。截止12月1日,对冲基金整体回报严重落后于市场。彭博收集的数据显示,对冲基金平均同比上涨了2%,其回报率也就勉强赶上无风险10年期美国国债的票面利率。2014年将有1000多只基金倒闭,是自2009年以来破产清算最多的一年。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • Germany ranks No. 4 overall. The nation ranks No. 10 in Citizenship. It is also No. 1 in Entrepreneurship and No. 3 in Best Countries for Education.
  • 2015年赣州家具产业集群收入过千亿元
  • Trigger Mortis was released on September 8, ahead of the release of the latest Bond film Spectre which is out in cinemas on October 26.
  • 甘肃:乡村旅游让农民享受“绿色收益”
  • 楼市告别“小阳春” 多地调控政策再收紧
  • An American singer-songwriter, Taylor Swift comes at No. 7 amongst ten most beautiful women of 2015. She is known for narrative songs about her personal experiences. She has received many awards and honors, including seven Grammy Awards, 16 American Music Awards, eleven Country Music Association Awards, eight Academy of Country Music Awards, 34 Billboard Music Awards and one Brit Award. As a songwriter, she has been honored by the Nashville Songwriters Association and the Songwriters Hall of Fame. By the start of 2015, Swift had sold over 40 million albums, 130 million single downloads and was one of the top five music artists with the highest worldwide digital sales.
    adj. 有益的,有利的

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the “涨价潮”来势汹汹 门窗企业如何应对?, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

香江控股23.6亿收购家居商贸资产

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

解读2017最新家装流行趋势:风格告别一枝独秀 混搭才出彩

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 进入2月以来,猛龙逐渐感到他们需要进行人员调整了:良好的开局已经被挥霍的差不多了,他们的防守不足以限制对手,他们在四号位有个巨大的漏洞,在凯尔-洛瑞即将成为自由球员之前,他们急迫的需要利用好他的巅峰期。
    读:蕾丝(花边)
  • 艾伦·狄珍妮丝
    Global warming and a powerful El weather event combined to make 2015 the planet’s hottest year since modern records began in the 1800s, according to scientists, who warned this year could be even warmer.
    5、Poor e-mail communication
    17 November
    6. “The Martian” With its red-rock buttes and mesas, Ridley Scott’s deeply satisfying space western both draws from an enduring genre and his own Pantheon legacy. (Read the review.)

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 华源轩家具回应破产传闻 业内称风投撤资致供应链断裂
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 人社部副部长谈中国为什么造不好马桶盖

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

Tony Moloney, head of education and skills at National Grid, says the UK utility’s involvement is part of its broader strategy to encourage school students to study Stem subjects — science, technology, engineering and mathematics — and learn more about jobs in his sector.
勇士的横扫,实际上让那些试图挑战勇士的球队无力追赶勇士的脚步,致使联盟在季后赛收入上损失惨重。于是,总决赛便成了战胜勇士的最后的希望,也是最后的机会。总有些愚蠢的人通过不断告诉你不要低估了勒布朗·詹姆斯来让你重燃希望。我看了所有五场詹姆斯在的总决赛,我现在客观的告诉你:詹姆斯知道自己赢不了。“我能做什么?他们赢了73场比赛,我打败了他们,于是他们引进了凯文杜兰特。”在凯文杜兰特用自己的冷血投射杀死系列赛之前,骑士还设法在三场比赛中夺得了一场胜利。但最后,骑士队虽然避免了横扫的尴尬,但他们结束赛季的方式也只能用虎头蛇尾来形容。
其他列入前十的热门搜索项中除了一个以外,都反映了公众对名人的痴迷。青少年热捧的流行小天后麦莉 赛勒斯在热门搜索项中排行第三,紧跟其后排在第四位的是电视明星金 卡戴珊。嘎嘎小姐排在第五位,女演员梅根 福克斯排在第七,前十名的其他几位分别是贾斯汀 比伯、美国偶像和小甜甜布兰妮。排在第六位的iPhone是个例外。
The consumer price index rose by 1.8 per cent year-on-year in January, from 1.6 per cent in December 2015. However, CPI continues to trail Beijing’s target of “around 3 per cent“.
Inclusive and green finance
As supporters kept streaming toward the Capitol building, one yelled out, “Today, a new Puerto Rico begins!” to the cheers of others, including those holding U.S. flags.
考虑到波士顿咨询集团(Boston Consulting Group)管理合伙人理查德莱塞(Richard Lesser)的第二任期将于10月结束,该公司可能也将引来变化。然而,由于该公司拒绝就其选举流程及领导人最多可以有几个任期置评,莱塞的未来尚不明确。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 《小可爱与拳击手》(Cutie and the Boxer)几乎没有受到观影公众的注意,但好电影名单并非票房大片的罗列。这部达到正片长度的纪录片是扎克利?海因策林(Zachary Heinzerling)的处女作,其影响与感悟同样出色。表面上它只是讲述了一段勉力维持了40年的问题婚姻。然而在表面之下,又惊人地暴露出来的是一段有关竞争(夫妻双方都是艺术家)、怨恨、不情愿的奉献以及持久的爱(这是最让人震惊的)的历史。
  • 西宁房价终结25月连涨 4月跌幅全国第二
  • 此外,有6个地区的GDP增速低于7%,其中东北的辽宁省以负增长垫底。
    The annual national civil service exam kicked off last Sunday, and some recent hot topics - such as college graduates starting their own businesses and the Yutu (Jade Rabbit) lunar rover - appeared in the exam questions.
  • 木门产品应使用“身份证” 杜绝山寨风
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 2016年空前的海外收购潮消耗了中国大量外汇储备,随后监管部门开始严格限制境外交易。今年8月,中国政府出台了新框架,鼓励那些符合北京战略重点的交易,并限制涉及娱乐、体育和豪宅等方面的交易。
    没有什么比老板所说和所做不一样更糟糕了,也没有什么比守信用更重要了。就像经理们一定要相信他们的团队,员工一定要相信他们的老板心中会为他们带来最佳利益。
  • adj. 浓缩的;扼要的 vt. 浓缩(condense
    节目9 相声《这事儿不赖我》,曹云金 刘云天
  • Common areas include two living rooms, both with walls of glass opening to a patio and an in-ground pool. Ceilings rise as high as 28 feet; doors throughout are Spanish cedar. Among the stainless-steel kitchen appliances are a Fisher & Paykel range and two Sub-Zero refrigerators, as well as steel cabinets and sinks. A breakfast bar separates the kitchen from the dining area, which also opens to the patio and pool.
    该读数略低于经济学家的预期,不过总体上并不令人吃惊。上个月当中国央行(PBoC)出人意料地采取降息措施时,部分分析师就曾表示,此举可能是一种预防性措施,新出来的经济数据很可能较为疲弱。如今,事实正如他们的预期。
  • Even if Gibson turns out to be a rental and leaves as a free agent this summer, the Thunder will likely feel good about these trade terms.
    Liu Fei was also a half-brother of the Emperor Wu of Han who ruled from 141BC to 97BC.
    LeBron James
  • Carve out a place at home that is your study space. If you've got a family around you, make sure everyone understands that when you're in that space, you're not to be interrupted unless the house is on fire.
    Premiered on Jan 29, the drama received 7 points out of 10 on the country's popular review website Douban.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 北京顺义:数千平方米违建库房拆了 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

村民刚住新居就遭拆迁 官员:配合城中村改造

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

云南政协委员建议用水泥窑协同处理固废

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

衣柜企业进驻大型购物商场 “人流量”是优势

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

北京严格落实房产开发企业安全责任 明确六项检查内容

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

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The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • For a few years, Namibia's dollar has been depreciating against many currencies, providing affordable opportunities for travel. The best-priced flights generally avoid South African and European school-holiday times, especially late December and January.
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 深化农村改革。
    在9月初发布的另一份报告中,世界气象组织(World Meteorological Organization)称,2013年大气中的二氧化碳水平,比工业革命之前的普遍水平高出42%。其他重要的温室气体含量也有所增加,与前工业化时代水平相比,甲烷增加了153%,一氧化二氮增加了21%。
    Start-ups
  • 美国各地许多餐馆和商店星期三向美国退伍军人提供免费服务或优惠,以纪念一年一度的退伍军人节。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 自此之后,中国每年都会发布以12生肖属相为主题的农历新年纪念邮票。
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  • World Health Organisation declared that the cluster of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders were a public health emergency of international concern, it was a rallying cry for the international community to respond.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

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  • Household substance abuse
  • 顺德制定材料价格指数 争夺家具业话语权
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

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  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
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  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 中国LED照明企业海外并购频繁 “抢人”“抢钱”水到渠成
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

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Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

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自从美国的民权运动以及欧洲敞开国界以来,多元文化主义已经兴盛数十载,这些问题似乎是一种突然的逆转。
冲击奖项:最佳影片、最佳原创剧本奖项的提名应该是肯定的,而弗兰西斯麦克多蒙德现在是奥斯卡最佳女主角奖的最热人选。
It's the summer of 1983, and precocious 17-year-old Elio Perlman is spending the days with his family at their 17th-century villa in Lombardy, Italy. He soon meets Oliver, a handsome doctoral student who's working as an intern for Elio's father. Amid the sun-drenched splendor of their surroundings, Elio and Oliver discover the heady beauty of awakening desire over the course of a summer that will alter their lives forever.
这是乔布斯从2000年6月到2008年9月的照片合集,显示了他健康状况的巨大变化。
从化石燃料转向可再生能源,无疑是我们这个时代最重要的工程挑战和科学挑战。
达洛伊西奥常喜欢说“时间是新的货币”。这是一个17岁男孩对人生的睿智洞察,也是Summly软件背后的发展理念。而我们多数人在他那个年龄,时间多得都不知道该怎么做才不会荒废。我很容易就忘了这样一个事实:达洛伊西奥在1995年出生于一个中上层阶级家庭,连高中都还没毕业,还住在小时候住的那个舒服卧室里。在我和他父母聊天的时候,他离开房间去在电脑上干活。只见他穿着袜子下楼,牛仔裤腿扫过大厅的地毯──此时此刻是他最像个孩子的时候。
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Length of program: 19 months
在主要贸易伙伴中,以美元计的出口确实出现增长的包括对美国的出口,同比增长5.5%,达到370.6亿美元。而对韩国的出口也显示增长8.3%至102亿美元。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

钢铁产能置换指标价格上涨 未来产能版图或面临洗牌

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
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  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

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  • After weeks of nail-biting auditions and five days of tense semi-finals, Britain’s Got Talent picked one of the 11 acts to be the 2014 champion.
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  • When he was offered the role of "Will" on Fresh Prince, he had 70% of his wages garnished for the first three seasons. After three years, he was able to take home his full salary. Basically, the first line of the theme song could have been written about Will Smith's real life: "This is a story all about how/My life got flip-turned upside down." Except in real life, the "guys making trouble in his neighborhood" was the IRS.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 智能门行业火热 代理商进驻应仔细甄别
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
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  • Slow growth around the world won't hurt the U.S. all that much. American exports might flatten out or even dip, but that would be offset by lower imports of petroleum because of sinking oil prices. So the trade deficit is unlikely to get further out of whack.

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

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